While composite and shaped pulses are basic building blocks in state of the art NMR experiments, virtually all pulsed EPR experiments are still performed using simple rectangular pulses. Optimal control theory makes it possible to explore the physical limits of pulse sequence performance and to develop practical sequences that approach these limits with the required robustness with respect to experimental imperfections. The application of such sophisticated and powerful modulated pulses in EPR spectroscopy has become only recently possible due to the availability of fast hardware for microwave pulse shaping. We will develop optimized amplitude and phase modulated pulses that take relaxation and experimental limitations of typical EPR settings into account. Initially, we will focus on applications such as excitation and inversion pulses, where spin-spin coupling effects can be neglected during the pulses. However, as we progress to more sophisticated experiments, such as PELDOR, DQEPR, HYSCORE or electron-nuclear polarization transfer, also the coupling between spins has to be taken into account and the novel concept of cooperative pulses will be exploited, which are designed not only to compensate their own imperfections but also each other’s imperfections.